MSD Manual

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        The following abbreviations are used throughout the text; other abbreviations are expanded at first mention in the chapter or sub-chapter.

        ad lib as much as desired
        ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone
        ADP adenosine diphosphate
        ALT alanine aminotransferase
        AST aspartate aminotransferase
        ATP adenosine triphosphate
        bid twice a day
        bpm beats per minute
        BUN blood urea nitrogen
        C Celsius (Centigrade)
        cal calorie(s)
        CBC(s) complete blood count(s)
        CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        CFU colony-forming unit
        CK creatine kinase
        cm centimeter(s)
        CNS central nervous system
        CPK creatine phosphokinase
        CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
        CSF cerebrospinal fluid
        CT computed tomography
        cu cubic
        DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation
        dL deciliter(s)
        DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
        ECG electrocardiogram
        eg for example
        ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
        EPA Environmental Protection Agency
        EPG eggs per gram (of feces)
        et seq and the following one(s)
        EU European Union
        F Fahrenheit
        FDA Food and Drug Administration
        fL femtoliter(s)
        ft foot, feet
        g gram(s)
        gal. gallon(s)
        GI gastrointestinal
        GnRH gonadotropin-releasing hormone
        H&E hematoxylin and eosin
        Hgb hemoglobin
        hr hour(s)
        ie that is
        Ig immunoglobulin (with class following: A, D, E, G, or M)
        IL interleukin
        IM intramuscular(ly)
        in. inch(es)
        IP intraperitoneal(ly)
        IU international unit(s)
        IV intravenous(ly)
        kcal kilocalorie(s)
        kg kilogram(s)
        L liter(s)
        LDH lactate dehydrogenase
        lb pound(s)
        m meter(s)
        M molar
        Mcal megacalorie(s)
        mcg microgram
        mcm micrometer
        ME metabolizable energy
        mEq milliequivalent(s)
        mg milligram(s)
        min minute(s)
        mL milliliter(s)
        mm millimeter(s)
        mo month(s)
        mol mole(s)
        mOsm milliosmole(s)
        nm nanometer(s)
        MRI magnetic resonance imaging
        NRC National Research Council
        NSAID(s) nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug(s)
        OIE Office International des Épizooties
        oz ounce(s)
        p/pp page/pages
        PCR polymerase chain reaction
        PCV packed cell volume
        pH negative logarithm of hydrogen ion activity
        PO per os, orally
        ppb part(s) per billion
        ppm part(s) per million
        qid four times a day
        qs ad quantity sufficient to make
        RBC(s) red blood cell(s)
        RNA ribonucleic acid
        RT-PCR reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
        SC subcutaneous(ly)
        sec second(s)
        SI units International System of Units
        SPF specific pathogen free
        sq square
        tbsp tablespoon(s)
        TDN total digestible nutrients
        tid three times a day
        tsp teaspoon(s)
        U unit(s)
        UK United Kingdom
        USDA United States Department of Agriculture
        USA United States of America
        USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (former)
        WBC(s) white blood cell(s)
        wk week(s)
        wt weight
        yr year(s)
        α alpha
        β beta
        δ delta
        ε epsilon
        γ gamma
        λ lambda
        μ micro, mu
        κ kappa
        σ sigma